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11th International Conference on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, will be organized around the theme “"Emerging Challenges in Clinical Microbiology"”

Euro Clinical Microbiology 2021 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Euro Clinical Microbiology 2021

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Antimicrobial Agents: 

An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. For example, antibiotics are used against bacteria, and antifungal are used against fungi.  

Antimicrobial Resistance:

Antimicrobial resistance happens when microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites) change when they are exposed to antimicrobial drugs (such as antibiotics, antifungal, antiviral, antimalarials, and anthelmintics). Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as “superbugs”.


An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. For example, antibiotics are used against bacteria, and antifungal are used against fungi.


Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in your body. Chemotherapy is most often used to treat cancer, since cancer cells grow and multiply much more quickly than most cells in the body. Many different chemotherapy drugs are available.

Bacterial disease, any of a variety of illnesses caused by bacteria. Until the mid-20th century, bacterial pneumonia was probably the leading cause of death among the elderly. Improved sanitation, vaccines, and antibiotics have all decreased the mortality rates from bacterial infections, though antibiotic-resistant strains have caused resurgence in some illnesses. In the early 21st century, tuberculosis, which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis—several strains of which had developed resistance to one or more drugs widely used to treat the infection—was among the deadliest infectious diseases worldwide.

Public Health microbiology is a specialty which spans the fields of human, animal, food, water and environmental microbiology, with a focus on human health and disease. It requires laboratory scientists, epidemiologists, and clinicians to generate, integrate, analyze and communicate epidemic intelligence. Public Health microbiology supports the monitoring of known and emerging threats and facilitates the evaluation of effective interventions.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is defined as illness caused by a novel coronavirus now called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; formerly called 2019-nCoV), which was first identified amid an outbreak of respiratory illness cases in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China.  It was initially reported to the WHO on December 31, 2019. On January 30, 2020, the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a global health emergency.  On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, its first such designation since declaring H1N1 influenza a pandemic in 2009. Illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 was termed COVID-19 by the WHO, the acronym derived from "coronavirus disease 2019. " The name was chosen to avoid stigmatizing the virus's origins in terms of populations, geography, or animal associations.

Disease Diagnosis:

Diagnosis, the process of determining the nature of a disease or disorder and distinguishing it from other possible conditions. The term comes from the Greek gnosis, meaning knowledge. Traditionally, diagnosis has been defined as the art of identifying a disease from its signs and symptoms. Formerly, few diagnostic tests were available to assist the physician, who depended on medical history, observation, and examination.


Most people know that good hygiene, sanitation and immunizations can prevent infections. They also know if they don’t smoke, eat healthily and exercise regularly they can reduce their chances of developing diabetes or experiencing a heart attack or a stroke. And that if they wear a seatbelt, don’t drink and drive or speed, they are far less likely to be injured or killed on our roads.

Fungal diseases are often caused by fungi that are common in the environment. Most fungi are not dangerous, but some types can be harmful to health. Mild fungal skin diseases can look like a rash and are very common. Fungal diseases in the lungs are often similar to other illnesses such as the flu or tuberculosis.

Host pathogen interaction takes place between a pathogen and a host. An asymptomatic infection is the one in which pathogen resides in host without causing any harm; Microbes can be both hosts and pathogens and the studies of bacterial pathogenesis leads to the identification of molecular differences between a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic microbe. Virulence relies on host factors, like pathogenicity of an avirulent microbe in immune compromised host and also the missing of the pathogenicity of virulent pathogens in immune hosts. The measure of virulence is the ability of a microbe to cause disease in any animal, centralized to the Koch’s postulates.


The immune system is what protects your body from diseases and infections. It's the bodily system that produces the immune response to defend your body from foreign substances, cells, and tissues. The immune system includes various parts of the body including the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, special deposits of lymphoid tissue (such as those in the gastrointestinal tract and bone marrow), and macrophages, lymphocytes including the B cells and T cells, and antibodies.


Injection of a killed microbe in order to stimulate the immune system against the microbe, thereby preventing disease. Vaccinations, or immunizations, work by stimulating the immune system, the natural disease-fighting system of the body. The healthy immune system is able to recognize invading bacteria and viruses and produce substances (antibodies) to destroy or disable them. Immunizations prepare the immune system to ward off a disease. To immunize against viral diseases, the virus used in the vaccine has been weakened or killed. To only immunize against bacterial diseases, it is generally possible to use a small portion of the dead bacteria to stimulate the formation of antibodies against the whole bacteria. In addition to the initial immunization process, it has been found that the effectiveness of immunizations can be improved by periodic repeat injections or "boosters." Also see Vaccines (in the plural) and Vaccine of a specific type (such Vaccine, Polio).

Infection control is the forestalling/prevention of nosocomial infections. It is a part of the framework of the health care. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology are pertinent to the public health practice, interpolated in a particular health-care distribution system. Anti-infective agents, like for instance antibiotics - essentially antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoal are readily accessible to annihilate infections. Infection control comprises elements relevant to the transmission of infections; either in the hospitals or other healthcare centers including prevention via hand hygiene, cleaning or disinfection or sanitization, vaccines or surveillance and probe of infections in a health-care domain and management.

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microbes which spread either directly or indirectly from one person to another. These can be classified as either bacterial, viral, zoonotic, parasitic or fungal depending on causative agents. Most of infections are not lethal and organism is annihilated after the symptoms wane. The process requires immune mechanisms to kill the source of the pathogen. Specific acquired immunity antagonistic to the infectious diseases are mediated by either antibodies or by T lymphocytes. The immune response causes high fever, inflammation, and also has the probability to be devastating to a microbe. Phylodynamic models help in locating the epidemic and pandemic origins. The agile rate of evolution and growth in viruses allows molecular clocks to envisage the genetic sequences, thereby providing the precise rate of evolution of the virus.

Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. In addition, this field of science studies various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious disease: bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and one type of infectious protein called prion.

In most natural, clinical and industrial settings, microorganisms exist in biofilms that associate with biotic and abiotic surfaces. These three-dimensional single-species or polymicrobial communities are embedded in a self-produced matrix that enables the intercellular exchange of metabolites, genetic material and signaling molecules. In addition, these microbial consortia provide protection against predators and antimicrobial agents, and they are widely studied owing to their clinical relevance, their ubiquitous nature and the functional insights that they provide into microbial ecology.

Epidemiology is the study of the determinants, occurrence, and distribution of health and disease in a defined population. Infection is the replication of organisms in host tissue, which may cause disease. A carrier is an individual with no overt disease who harbors infectious organisms. Dissemination is the spread of the organism in the environment.

Contamination is the intrusion of a living being's body tissues by ailment causing specialists, their increase, and the response of host tissues to these life forms and the poisons they produce. Diseases are caused by irresistible specialists including infections, viroids, prions, microorganisms, nematodes, for example, parasitic roundworm sand pinworms, arthropods, for example, ticks, bugs, insects, and lice, organisms, for example, ringworm, and different macro parasites, for example, tapeworms and different helminthes. A contamination caused by microorganisms. The development of numerous ailment causing microscopic organisms can be stopped by the utilization of anti-toxins.

  • Parasitic Infections
  • Fungal Infections
  • Viral Infections
  • Bacterial diseases

Microbial Pathogenesis:

Microbial pathogenesis is the ability of microbes, or their components, to cause infection in a host after developing a complex mode of interactions from both hosts and pathogens. During the long course of evolution, disease-causing pathogenic microbes have developed a variety of virulence mechanisms and virulence encoding factors or genes having inducible or constitutive expression patterns that produce proteins or other bimolecular, like polysaccharides or lipid mediators produced through a complex biosynthetic route.


Immunology is the study to understand the molecular mechanisms by using microorganisms cause diseases or disorders in humans and animals by using them as host. Microorganisms start to gain nutrients from host and grow to multiply by reproduction, this processes is harmful and affect negatively to the host body.

A parasitic disease also known as parasitizes, is an infectious disease caused or transmitted by a parasite. Many parasites do not cause diseases as it may eventually lead to death of both organism and host. Parasitic diseases can affect practically all living organisms, including plants and mammals. The study of parasitic diseases is called parasitology

A viral infection is a proliferation of a harmful virus inside the body. Viruses cannot reproduce without the assistance of a host. Viruses infect a host by introducing their genetic material into the cells and hijacking the cell's internal machinery to make more virus particles. With an active viral infection, a virus makes copies of itself and bursts the host cell (killing it) to set the newly-formed virus particles free. In other cases, virus particles “bud” off the host cell over a period of time before killing the host cell. Either way, new virus particles are then free to infect other cells. Symptoms of the viral illness occur as a result of cell damage, tissue destruction, and the associated immune response. A viral infection occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles attach to and enter susceptible cells.